Handhygiëne & persoonlijke hygiëne medewerker - Geïncludeerde studies module 3.1

Author, publication year: Olivares, 2020

Included studies in the review Study characteristics Patient characteristics Intervention (I) Comparison / control (C) Outcome measures and effect size Comments
A. Salisbury, 1997
B. Trick, 2003
C. Rupp, 2008
D. Yildirim, 2008
E. Hautemeniere, 2010
F. Ramon-Canton, 2011
G. Chugh, 2013
H. Kelsall, 2006
I. Waterman, 2006
J. Wongworawat, 2007
K. Al-Allak, 2008
L. Arrowsmith, 2014
M. Francis, 2016

Type of study:
SRs, RCTs, observational

Search date:

Number of included studies:

Source of funding:

Inclusion criteria:
- Health personnel >18 years
- Use of rings or use of enamel
- Hand hygiene with alcoholic solution or soap and water
- Surgical scrub with antiseptic

Exclusion criteria:
- Studies on artificial nail

N total at baseline (n analyzed):
A. 100
B. 564
C. 3678
D. 84
E. 3067
F. 293
G. 30
H. 28
I. 19
J. 20
K. 19
L. 0
M. 7 studies (SR)

Baseline characteristics of the included studies are not reported.


A. Ring
B. Ring
C. Ring
D. Group 1: plain ring; Group 2: stone ring
E. Ring
F. Ring
G. Ring
H. Ring
I. Ring
J. Ring
K. Plain ring
L. N.A.
M. N.A.

A. No ring
B. No ring
C. No ring
D. No ring
E. No ring
F. No ring
G. No ring
H. No ring
I. No ring
J. No ring
K. No ring
L. N.A.
M. N.A.

A. Use of rings was associated with a greater carriage of microorganisms before and after handwashing. It was also associated with the persistence of pathogenic agents after hand hygiene.
B. Ring wearers had a 10-fold increased risk of carrying some microorganism.
C. Ring wearers had greater carrying of BGN and microorganism.
D. Greater number of gram-positive bacteria and BGN in ring wearers (p<0.01), no difference between the type of ring used.
E. Use of ring was associated with a reduction in the quality of hand hygiene during follow-up (OR 2.0).
F. 84% of ring wearers presented deficiencies in the hygiene of their fingers compared to 46% who did not wear one.
G. Greater number of microorganisms after hand hygiene in ring wearers (p=0.05).
H. Greater carrier of microorganisms in ring users before (p=0.05) and after surgical scrubbing (p=0.03).
I. No statistical difference between group in quantitative cultures.
J. No significant differences.
K. No significant differences.
L. This SR did not include any studies.
M. This SR concluded that there was insufficient evidence.

The review also included studies on nail polish, which are not displayed in this table.

The SR by Arrowsmith did not find any studies.

The SR by Francis included 7 studies.