Handhygiëne & persoonlijke hygiëne medewerker - Geïncludeerde studies module 3.2

Author, publication year: Olivares, 2020

Included studies in the review

Study characteristics

Patient (P) characteristics

Intervention (I)

Comparison / control (C)


Outcome measures (O)


A. Baumgardner, 1993
B. Wynd, 1994
C. Edel, 1998
D. Arrowsmith, 2014
E. Hardy, 2017
F. Walaszeq, 2018
G. Hewlett, 2018

Type of study:
SRs, RCTs, observational

Search date:

Number of included studies:

Source of funding:

Inclusion criteria:
- Health personnel >18 years
- Use of rings or use of enamel
- Hand hygiene with alcoholic solution or soap and water
- Surgical scrub with antiseptic

Exclusion criteria:
- Studies on artificial nails

N total at baseline (n analysed):
A. 26
B. 102
C. 89
D. 102
E. 21
F. 86
G. 84

Baseline characteristics of the included studies are not reported.

A. Nail polish on short nails
B. Group 1: Intact nail polish; Group 2: damaged nail polish
C. Nail polish
D. Nail polish
E. N.A.
F. Group 1: traditional nail polish; Group 2: varnish only; Group 3: hybrid varnish with UV light; Group 4: gel nail polish with UV light
G. Group 1: traditional nail polish; Group 2: gel nail polish

A. No nail polish on short nails
B. Natural nails
C. No nail polish
D. No nail polish
E. N.A.
F. Natural nails
G. Natural nails

Length of follow-up:
Not reported

A. No difference in bacterial load after hand hygiene (p>0.01)
B. Damaged nail polish was associated with a higher bacterial load after hand hygiene (p<0.04)
C. Nail polish was associated with greater colonization by GNB after surgical hand washing (p<0.01)
D. No difference detected in bacterial load (p>0.05)
E. N.A.
F. Both the length of the nails and the presence of gel polish were independently associated with greater persistence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms after hand hygiene (gel polish, OR 9.2).
G. Significantly lower reduction in the bacterial load after hand hygiene in gel nail polish group compared to natural nails group.

The review also included studies on ring wearing, which are not displayed in this table.

The SR by Arrowsmith (study D) relies solely on the data of Wynd (study B).